The codec for the CTAG cards is not on the I2C bus, so it's normal not to see it with
i2cdetect. The CTAG cards need Bela image v0.3.6a or later. You can check the version of your image you are running by reading it above the prompt when you log into the board, or running
grep v0 /etc/motd. If you have an older Bela SD card, you would have to update it to the latest release.
Once you have a suitable image, does the problem persist?
If it does, can you run
ls /dev/spidev* on the board and post the result?
If you obtain
/dev/spidev32766.0 /dev/spidev32766.1, then it means that the SPI devices used to configure the codec are correctly initialized. If you don't see those there, that would be very weird.
If the devices are listed, but the problem persist, then run
board_detect on the board and post the result.
Then, run the Bela program that you are trying to start with
--verbose (either from the command line, or adding
--verbose to the "Command line options" in the IDE tab) and post the result of that.