If you unplug the mic does the noise go away?
Where is your audio output going? Do you have it plugged into an amplifier? Just a speaker? Headphones?
Removing the charger from your laptop doesn't prove anything more than the problem isn't the laptop charger...not to mention that some ground loops are parasitic (capacitive coupling between the metal shield of your laptop and your table or other nearby cables, etc). This doesn't rule out noise coming from your laptop itself -- do you have another 5V supply you could try. Even if there is still noise, but the noise is different then you have a clue.
The ideal situation is having a microphone and headphones for listening. Then there isn't any place for ground loops because the only ground in the system comes from your laptop.
This still doesn't rule out radiated EMI fields from somewhere. Do you live near transmission power lines (tall towers)? Fluorescent lights? Even the fluorescent light bulbs. LED light bulbs and strips can be a source of radiated noise because they usually have a cheap/dirty switching converter operating with fast enough switching edges to radiate high frequency pulses on every edge.
Another thing you might want to consider is to ground all of the unused analog inputs. I seem to recall all of those inputs are floating so there's some possibility the input op amps are responding to noise and causing it to couple somewhere else non-obvious. They might even be unstable when the noninverting input is high impedance. Floating op-amps are never a good thing for audio circuits.